Molar Pregnancy

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A molar pregnancy occurs when the normal development of fetal tissue in the uterus is replaced by an abnormal growth. This uncommon variant of pregnancy accounts for only 0.005 to 0.001% of all pregnancies. The primary causes of molar pregnancy include the fertilization of empty eggs and the double fertilization of female cells. Molar pregnancies are categorized into two types: complete molar pregnancy and partial molar pregnancy. In a complete molar pregnancy, there is an absence of any fetal tissue, whereas an incomplete molar pregnancy involves residual fetal tissue.

Risk factors of molar pregnancy

  • Age - being younger than 20 years and older than 35 years increases the risk
  • Previous incidence of molar pregnancy
  • Blood type - A and AB blood types are at an increased risk of molar pregnancy
  • Family history of molar pregnancy
  • Nutrition/diet - low levels of carotene and vitamin A in the diet increases the risk of molar pregnancy

Symptoms of molar pregnancy

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Pelvic pressure or pain
  • Vaginal bleeding
  • Severe morning sickness
  • High blood pressure

Diagnosis and Management of Molar Pregnancy

Diagnosis of Molar Pregnancy in Delhi:

Diagnosis of molar pregnancy involves a series of diagnostic tests to determine the most suitable treatment approach:

Blood Test: This test measures the level of hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) in the blood. In molar pregnancy, hCG levels are significantly higher than normal during a regular pregnancy. Routine blood tests during pregnancy aid in detecting molar pregnancy.

Transvaginal Ultrasound: This procedure generates images of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, helping identify any abnormal structures or growths within the pelvic region.

Urine Test: A urine test assesses the color and composition of urine while also indicating the level of hCG.

Treatment of Molar Pregnancy in Delhi:

Molar pregnancy involves the excessive growth of trophoblast cells, and prompt treatment is essential to prevent serious complications, including a rare form of cancer. The treatment options depend on the severity of the condition:

Medication Treatment:
Physicians often prescribe methotrexate to halt the rapid growth of hydatidiform moles. This medicine is administered through a single injection. If the initial dose doesn't result in termination, a second dose may be necessary. The doctor monitors hCG levels before and after the procedure. While on methotrexate, it's important to avoid anti-inflammatory medications like ibuprofen and aspirin due to potential interactions.

Surgical Treatment: There are two surgical approaches for molar pregnancy: Dilatation and Curettage (D&C) procedure and hysterectomy.

D&C Procedure: Performed under general anesthesia, the D&C procedure involves cervical dilation using medication, followed by the insertion of a suction device into the uterus to remove molar tissues. This procedure is typically carried out in a hospital or surgery center and takes around 30-40 minutes.

Hysterectomy:  Reserved for severe cases with excessive bleeding or a high risk of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), hysterectomy can be conducted through an open cut incision or laparoscopy.

Effective diagnosis and appropriate treatment, whether medication or surgery, are crucial for managing molar pregnancy and ensuring the patient's well-being. Consulting with medical professionals is imperative for accurate evaluation and tailored treatment.