Diabetic Foot Ulcer

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A diabetic foot ulcer is a wound or sore that develops due to unmanaged diabetes. These ulcers are quite common, affecting approximately 1 in 10 individuals with diabetes. Surprisingly, seemingly ordinary factors like wearing new shoes or sustaining minor foot injuries can trigger the onset of these ulcers.

Diabetic Foot Ulcer Stages:

  • Grade 0: Intact skin
  • Grade 1: Superficial skin ulcer or subcutaneous tissue
  • Grade 2: Ulcer extending into tendon, bone, and capsule
  • Grade 3: Deep ulcer with osteomyelitis or abscess
  • Grade 4: Partial foot gangrene
  • Grade 5: Whole foot gangrene

Foods to Avoid with Diabetic Foot Ulcers:

  • Cauliflower
  • Tomatoes
  • Peppers
  • Carrots
  • Broccoli
  • Treatment


To assess the severity of a diabetic foot ulcer, your doctor may employ various examinations. They will begin by gathering your medical history and conducting a physical examination to identify any scratches, cuts, or blisters on your feet. Pulse assessment will help gauge blood flow to your feet. In addition to the physical exam, X-rays may be recommended to detect any foot misalignments caused by reduced bone mass. MRI scans can further reveal the extent of damage from the ulcer, and blood tests may be advised if there are signs of infection.


Debridement is a procedure that focuses on treating skin wounds. It involves the use of a sharp instrument or scalpel to remove dead or infected tissue from the ulcerated foot. After the procedure, the wound is dressed with a sterile bandage, which should be replaced daily. Ointments may also be used to expedite the healing process.

Infection Control:

Foot ulcers are susceptible to infections. To prevent bacterial infections, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics such as cephalexin, amoxicillin, moxifloxacin, or clindamycin. These antibiotics are effective against bacteria like staphylococcus aureus, ?-hemolytic streptococci, and Enterobacteriaceae, which are common culprits of ulcer-related infections.

Vascular Surgeries:

Narrowed arteries and compromised blood circulation are significant contributors to diabetic foot ulcers. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to improve blood flow.

Atherectomy is a procedure used to address ulcers caused by peripheral artery disease. It involves the surgical removal of fat, cholesterol, and calcium plaque from the arteries, widening them and enhancing blood flow. This can be achieved using a catheter with rotating blades or laser energy.

Depending on your medical history, atherectomy may be performed under general or regional anesthesia. It may be followed by balloon angioplasty, where a stent is placed in the vessel to maintain its openness.

In cases of advanced artery blockage, gangrene, or severe foot sores, leg bypass surgery may be recommended. This procedure redirects blood flow around blocked arteries, ensuring proper circulation to the foot.